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1 January, 2018 00:00 00 AM / LAST MODIFIED: 1 January, 2018 01:11:29 AM

Neurological disorders
Neurological disorders

Neurological disorders are health conditions involving the nervous system. A neurological disorder is a disease or injury of the central nervous system that causes paralysis of any part of the body. Sometimes physical injury to the brain, spinal cord, or nerves can be the cause of neurological disorders. Sometimes they can result from biochemical causes. Other times, the cause may be unkown and only the effects are seen. Neurological disorders can be a sign that there is an imbalance in your system. When you have an imbalance, you are also susceptible to various diseases which can settle in weak areas of your body.

Neurological disorders are a group of disorders that involve the central nervous system (brain, brainstem and cerebellum), the peripheral nervous system (including cranial nerves), and the autonomic nervous system (parts of which are located in both central and peripheral nervous system). Major branches are headache, stupor and coma, dementia, seizure, sleep disorders, trauma, infections, neoplasms, neuroophthalmology, movement disorders, demyelinating diseases, spinal cord disorders, and disorders of peripheral nerves, muscle and neuromuscular junctions. Neurological disabilities are associated with damage to the nervous system (including the brain and spinal cord) that results in the loss of some bodily or mental functions. Acquired Brain Injury (ABI), and Epilepsy are two of the most prevalent neurological disabilities. Heart attacks, infections, genetic disorders, and lack of oxygen to the brain may also result in a neurological disability.

Neurological disorders are quite diverse, chronic, challenging to treat, and often disabling. They can be caused by many different factors, including (but not limited to): inherited genetic abnormalities, problems in the immune system, injury to the brain or nervous system, or diabetes. Many mental illnesses are believed to be neurological disorders of the central nervous system, but they are classified separately. They are not traditionally listed as neurological diseases because their causes are not definitely determined as biological, although there are good reasons to suspect that bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have neuro-chemical causes.

The human central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. These lie in the midline of the body and are associated with the skull and vertebrae respectively. The central nervous system along with the peripheral nervous system comprise a primary division of controls that command all physical activities of a vertebrate. Neurons of the central nervous system affect consciousness and mental activity while spinal extensions of central nervous system neuron pathways affect skeletal muscles and organs in the body.


Major neurological conditions and diseases

Multiple sclerosis - Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease, a non-contagious chronic autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system which can present with a variety of neurological symptoms occurring in attacks or slowly progressing over time. It has no cure yet and the exact cause remains unknown. Due to its effects of the nervous system, it can lead to long-term impaired mobility and disability in severe cases. Multiple sclerosis slowly progressive autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks the protective myelin sheaths that surround the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord (a process called demyelination), resulting in damaged areas that are unable to transmit nerve impulses. Cerebral palsy - Cerebral palsy or CP is a group of disorders associated with developmental brain injuries that occur during fetal development, birth, or shortly after birth. It is characterized by a disruption of motor skills, with symptoms such as spasticity, paralysis, or seizures. Cerebral palsy is also known as static encephalopathy and Little's disease (which is strictly speaking only the "spastic diplegia" form of CP). It is no longer considered a disease, but rather it is a chronic nonprogressive neurological disorder.

The incidence is about 1.5 to 4 per 1000 live births. There is no cure, but therapy may be helpful. It has one of the highest lifetime costs of any birth defect. Headaches - A headache is a condition of mild to severe pain in the head; sometimes upper back or neck pain may also be interpreted as a headache. Most headaches are due to tension, migraine, or a combination of the two.

Serious underlying causes of headaches, like a tumor or a stroke, are extremely rare, despite the fact that many people worry about these possibilities. Migraine headache is a primary headache disorder with, almost certainly, a genetic basis.

Activation of a mechanism deep in the brain causes release of pain-producing inflammatory substances around the nerves and blood vessels of the head. Alzheimer's disease - Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive disorder in which brain cells (neurons) deteriorate, resulting in the loss of cognitive functions, primarily memory, judgment and reasoning, movement coordination, and pattern recognition. In advanced stages of the disease, all memory and mental functioning may be lost. A person with Alzheimer's disease usually has a gradual decline in mental functions, often beginning with slight memory loss, followed by losses in the ability to maintain employment, to plan and execute familiar tasks, and to reason and exercise judgment. The ultimate cause or causes of Alzheimer's disease are still unknown, there are several risk factors that increase a person's likelihood of developing the disease.

Chronic fatigue syndrome - Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an illness characterized by prolonged, debilitating fatigue and multiple nonspecific symptoms such as headaches, recurrent sore throats, muscle and joint pains, memory and concentration difficulties. Profound fatigue, the hallmark of the disorder, can come on suddenly or gradually and persists or recurs throughout the period of illness. Unlike the short-term disability of say, the flu, chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms linger for at least six months and often for years. The cause of chronic fatigue syndrome remains unknown.

Parkinson's disease - Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease of the substantia nigra (an area in the basal ganglia). Parkinson's disease involves a breakdown of the nerve cells in the motor area of the brain. As the cells break down, there is a shortage of dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, or chemical that carries messages to the body. When there is a shortage of dopamine, the messages that regulate movement aren't sent properly. Parkinson's disease happens when nerve cells (neurons) in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra gradually die. These cells normally produce dopamine, a chemical that helps to relay messages between areas of the brain that control body movement.

Carpal tunnel syndrome - Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when tendons in the wrist become inflamed after being aggravated. Tendons can become aggravated when the carpals (a tunnel of bones) and the ligaments in the wrist narrow, pinching nerves that reach the fingers and the muscle at the base of the thumb. Repetitive flexing and extension of the wrist may cause a thickening of the protective sheaths that surround each of the tendons, which narrows the tunnel. Women are three times more likely to develop CTS than men, and the risk increases with age. People between the ages of 40 and 60 are more commonly affected.

Neuropathy - Neuropathy is the disease of the nervous system. Neuropathy is a disturbance in the function of a nerve or particular group of nerves. Many people who have had diabetes for a while have nerve damage. The three major forms of nerve damage are: peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and mononeuropathy. The most common form is peripheral neuropathy, which mainly affects the feet and legs. Neuropathy can lead to disability, amputation, decreased ambulation as well as foot and leg ulceration because of loss or damage to nerves which feel sensation in the lower limbs.




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Editor : M. Shamsur Rahman

Published by the Editor on behalf of Independent Publications Limited at Media Printers, 446/H, Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1215.
Editorial, News & Commercial Offices : Beximco Media Complex, 149-150 Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1208, Bangladesh. GPO Box No. 934, Dhaka-1000.

Editor : M. Shamsur Rahman
Published by the Editor on behalf of Independent Publications Limited at Media Printers, 446/H, Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1215.
Editorial, News & Commercial Offices : Beximco Media Complex, 149-150 Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1208, Bangladesh. GPO Box No. 934, Dhaka-1000.

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