Wednesday 22 August 2018 ,
Wednesday 22 August 2018 ,
Latest News
  • Actress Nawshaba gets bail
  • No doubt BNP, Khaleda, Tarique involved in Aug 21 grenade attack: PM
  • 10 quota-reform leaders, activists freed from jail
  • Spped of Rohingya return depends on Bangladesh: Suu Kyi
  • Rainfall may increase in next 72hrs
9 February, 2018 11:42:28 AM / LAST MODIFIED: 10 February, 2018 10:11:14 AM
Print

Violence and intimate partner violence

Violence and its root causes have a negative impact on individuals, families, our communities, and society
Dr Mohammed Abul Kalam
Violence and intimate partner violence

I propose that without doubt violence is the number one global and national public health issue. We currently live in a world that hears or reads reports of some type of tragic violent activity on a daily basis. At the international level, violence consists of genocide, terrorism, cyber violence, and geographic country-level conflicts. At the local level violence consists of person-on-person violence including homicide, sexual violence, domestic violence, and intimate partner violence. Violence or the potential of violence is significant—women in Bangladesh experiences violence by someone close to them. Men and women both experience domestic or intimate partner violence, and children are not immune to violence—they experience and witness violence first hand. Threats of terrorism are a conscious concern of a large number of Bangladeshis. Domestic violence comes in many different forms, but all originate in the abuse of power at the household level. Certain aspects of Bangladeshi society, such as restrictions on women’s movement outside their homes, unequal access to education, and restricted employment opportunities, limit women’s ability to exercise their human rights and make them more vulnerable to domestic violence. Some of the roots of violence are deeply embedded into society, tapping into complex conditions such as hatred for other religions and types of sexual orientation, gender inequality, poverty, racism, joblessness, and hopelessness.

 

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health problem that is significantly associated with morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to explore the factors associated with attitudes toward wife beating among women in Bangladesh. From the sixth Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS-2011) interview data, 17,842 women were included in this study. A woman's age, household economic status, education (including her husband's), employment status, residence, region, decision-making autonomy, and religion were assessed in relation to acceptance or justification of wife beating under five hypothetical situations: if the wife burns the food, argues with husband, goes out without telling her husband, neglects the children, and if she refuses to have sexual intercourse with her husband. Of all the women who accept being beaten by their husbands, 23% accept it as a result of an argument, 18% due to neglecting their children, 17% due to going out without their husband's permission, 8% due to refusal of sex with husband, and 4% due to burning the food. Low household economic status, women's lower education, and being Muslim are significant factors for a woman to accept being beaten under all five hypothetical situations. Bangladesh has a long way to go in preventing IPV, particularly when poverty, low level of education, and unequal power in the family makes women vulnerable to gender-based domestic violence like IPV.

Violence and the root causes of this violence have a negative impact on individuals, families, our communities, and society. The health consequences of violence can be immediately acute or long-lasting and chronic, or fatal. Health consequences can be physical, mental, behavioral, or sexual and reproductive. Violence has been associated with an increased use and cost of health care services, creating further burden on our health care system. Violence is preventable. Emotional intelligence is suggested as one prevention strategy to reduce violence.

Emotional intelligence at the individual, family, community, and society levels is proposed as a cognitive–behavioral strategy to conquer violence. Emotional intelligence is also known as the emotional quotient. An emotionally intelligent person has the capacity or ability to recognize his or her own feelings and emotions, recognize the feelings and emotions of other persons, and discriminate and differentiate the various types of emotions appropriately, and use this emotional knowledge to guide his or her thinking and behavior. The competencies and skills that form the five main emotional intelligence constructs are the following: (1) Self-awareness: The ability to know one’s emotions, strengths, weaknesses, motives, values, and goals along with the ability to recognize their emotion’s impact on others while using this awareness to guide decisions and behaviors; (2) Self-regulation: The ability to control or redirect one’s disruptive emotions and impulses and adapt to changing circumstances; (3) Social skill: The ability to manage interpersonal relationships to influence others to pursue a common goal; (4) Empathy: The ability to take into consideration other people’s feelings when making decisions and acting; and (5) Motivation: A personal drive to achieve for the purpose of goal achievement.

As men’s health care providers, emotional intelligence should be integrated into our assessment and plan of care. The health care encounter provides an excellent interaction between provider and patient to assess potential for violence, self-awareness regarding emotions that may facilitate violent actions, or the impact that violence has on the patient in the past and currently. Patients can be referred for counseling and social support services to develop and build their skills of emotional intelligence. Community program planning activities should include the building of emotionally intelligent individuals, families, and communities. As we become more aware of our emotions, manage our emotions, empathize, and build social capital in an emotionally stable manner, we can reduce violence one person at a time.

Research on issues of intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual abuse (IPSA) within the general population is extensive. Though much of the discourse surrounding IPV and IPSA has traditionally focused on abuse perpetrated by men against women but IPV and IPSA are experienced by both men and women. Intimate partner violence can happen to anyone. However, although intimate partner violence impacts people across the spectra of gender identities and sexual orientation, particular individuals are especially vulnerable including women and men. One in Three women and one in four men have been victims of [some form of] physical violence by an intimate partner within their lifetime. This includes various experiences of physical violence, such as being slapped, kicked, burned, or harmed with a knife or gun.

The promotion of respectful, nonviolent relationships is not just the responsibility of individuals and partners, but also of the communities and society in which they live. It is important to continue addressing the beliefs, attitudes and messages that are deeply embedded in our social structures and that create a social climate that condones sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence. One way is through norms change. Societal and community norms, policies, and structures create environments that can support or undermine respectful, nonviolent relationships. Such beliefs and social norms are reinforced by media messages that portray sexual violence, stalking, or intimate partner violence as normative and acceptable, that reinforce negative stereotypes about masculinity, or that objectify and degrade women.

Further, failure to enforce existing policies and laws against these forms of violence may perpetuate beliefs that these behaviors are acceptable. It is important for all sectors of society to work together as part of any effort to end sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence, both to change norms, attitudes, and beliefs, as well as support women and men in rejecting violence.

Another strategy involves engaging bystanders to change social norms andintervene before violence occurs. In many situations, there are a variety of opportunities and numerous people who can choose to step forward and demonstrate that violence will not be tolerated within the community. For instance,

Bystanders may speak out against beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that support or condone sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence − such as media portrayals that glamorize violence − and change the perceptions of these social norms in their peer groups, schools, and communities.

An emphasis on primary prevention is essential for reducing theviolence-related health burden in the long term. However, secondary and tertiary prevention programs and services are also necessary for mitigating the more immediate consequences of violence. These programs and services are valuable for treating and reducing the sequelae and severity of violence and for intervening in the cycle of violence.

Sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence are oftenrepetitive and can recur over long time periods. Several strategic foci for the secondary and tertiary prevention of violence have emerged from the existing knowledge base.

Education and training should be targeted specifically to stake-holders who may be involved in One Stop Crisis Teams as these first responders set the tone for the victim’s experience in the criminal justice, health care, and legal systems. It is also important that health professionals be alert to the signsand symptoms of sexual violence and intimate partner violence at initial, follow-up, and annual visits. When signs and symptoms of violence are present, it should be required that an appropriate history is taken, assessment of symptoms is conducted, and appropriate treatment, counseling, protection referrals, and follow-up care are provided. We call upon the government to provide required coverage for screening and counseling for all women and adolescent girls for interpersonal and domestic violence as a preventive service in health insurance plans. We also recommend that these services be carried out in a culturally sensitive and supportive manner as part of women’s preventive services without charging a co-payment, co-insurance or a deductible.

It is also critically important to ensure legal, housing, mental health, and other services and resources are available and accessible to survivors. Creating a resource environment that is safe and where confidentiality is maintained should be a priority. This can be particularly challenging in rural areas given potentiallylong distances to resources and threats to confidentiality; however, access to appropriate services forms of violence may perpetuate beliefs that these behaviors are acceptable. It is important for all sectors of society to work together as part of any effort to end sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence, both to change norms, attitudes, and beliefs, as well as support women and men in rejecting violence.

Another strategy involves engaging bystanders to change social norms and intervene before violence occurs. In many situations, there are a variety of opportunities and numerous people who can choose to step forward and demonstrate that violence will not be tolerated within the community. For instance,

Bystanders may speak out against beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that support or condone sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence − such as media portrayals that glamorize violence − and change the perceptions of these social norms in their peer groups, schools, and communities.

Conclusion: Much progress has been made in violence prevention. There is strong reason to believe that the application of effective strategies combined with the capacity to implement them will make a difference.

The lessons already learned during public health’s short experience with violence prevention are consistent with those from public health’s much longer experience with the prevention of infectious and chronic diseases. Sexual violence, stalking and intimate partner violence can be prevented with data driven, collaborative action.

The writer is former Head, Department of Medical Sociology,

Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control & Research (IEDCR),

Dhaka, Bangladesh

E-mail: med_sociology_iedcr@yahoo.com

 

Comments

Poll
Today's Question »
TIB has expressed concerns over a new act that restricts ACC powers in arresting govt officials. Do you support the anti-graft watchdog?
 Yes
 No
 No Comment
Yes 94.3%
No 5.0%
No Comment 0.6%
Video
More Opinion Stories
Profiteers jacking up rice prices
Rice is a staple food of the Bangladeshi people. As a result everyone aspires that government will keep the price of the staple at a level so that they can buy it at a price convenient for them. At the same time it is also desirable…

Copyright © All right reserved.

Editor : M. Shamsur Rahman

Published by the Editor on behalf of Independent Publications Limited at Media Printers, 446/H, Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1215.
Editorial, News & Commercial Offices : Beximco Media Complex, 149-150 Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1208, Bangladesh. GPO Box No. 934, Dhaka-1000.

Editor : M. Shamsur Rahman
Published by the Editor on behalf of Independent Publications Limited at Media Printers, 446/H, Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1215.
Editorial, News & Commercial Offices : Beximco Media Complex, 149-150 Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1208, Bangladesh. GPO Box No. 934, Dhaka-1000.

Disclaimer & Privacy Policy
....................................................
About Us
....................................................
Contact Us
....................................................
Advertisement
....................................................
Subscription

Powered by : Frog Hosting