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19 August, 2019 00:00 00 AM

Overview of nutrition

Prof. Dr. Hafizuddin Ahmed
Overview of nutrition

Nutrition id the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth particularly in humans. It is the nourishment of energy and is how food affects the health and body. It includes intake, absorption assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion. There are two types of nutrients: Macronutrients and Micronutrients.  Three main types of macronutrients includes carbohydrate, protein and fat, two types of micronutrients are vitamins and minerals. Good nutrition means an adequate well balanced diet combined with regular physical activity.

Nutrition starts in the embryonic life as the trophoblast cells invade the deciduas digesting and imbibing it. Progesterone secreted during last half of sexual cycles convert endometrial stromal cells into swollen cells with extra glycogen, protein, lipids, minerals for development of zygote (fertilized egg).

Energy requirement for heavy work is 3500 kcal, apyrexial male in bed 2000 kcal and female 1600 kcal, male office worker is 2700kcal, farmer is 2800 kcal. A healthy housewife requires 2000 kcal and rural wife 2500 kcal. 1gm of carbohydrate gives 4.1 kcal, protein 4.3 and fat 9.3 kcal.

Seven major classes of nutrients are carbohydrate, protein, fat, the fibres, minerals, fibres and water. Carbohydrate is the main source of energy, and important for soluble vitamins. Protein is essential for growth and repair of muscle and body. Minerals are inorganic elements in body critical to its normal function. Proteins are essential for growth and repair of muscle and body tissues. Vitamins are either water soluble (B-Complex, C) or fat soluble (A, D, E & K). They play important in many chemical process of body.   

Water is essential for normal body function and acts as a vehicle for carrying other nutrients, elimination of waste products, help to digest food and regulates body temperature during activity. 60% of body weight is water.

Our food intake depends on availability of food and stimulation of hypothalamus. Stimulation of lateral hypothalamus causes us voracious i.e. hyperphagic and stimulation of ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus causes satiety in animal.

Nutritional disorders are under nutrition causing starvation, marasmus (Children), malnutrition i.e. deficiency of protein or nutrients, obesity: where there is prolong positive balance of energy. Inanition is opposite to obesity. Nutrients access which is acute or chronic occurs in overload of alcohol, iron, vitamin D, saturated fat. Effects of toxicants in food as in coeliac disease, urticaria, favism, migraine. PEM: Protein Energy Malnutrition are: a) Kwarshiorkor i.e deficiency of protein with adequate energy intake, b) Marasmus: occurs under 1 year age. There is prolong restriction of all food.

Healthy diet is concerned with preparation of food, storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching and that reduce the risk of foodborne illness. Proteins are absorbed as amino acid and carbohydrate is absorbed as monosaccharides, fat as monoglyceride and free fatty acids. Most fatty acids are non essentials and can be produced in the body but 2 fatty acids are important: Omega 3 and Omega 6 are good for health. These omega long chained polyunsaturated fatty acids are substract for a class of eicosanoids called prostaglandin which have role throughout the human body.

Healthy nutritious diet prevents varieties of diseases including cancer and essential for growth and development of children and adolescents. We should eat well, enough water (8-10 glasses), variety of foods including fruits, vegetables, whole grain products, lean meats, poultry, fish and less salt, sugar, saturated fat and transfat.

 

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Editor : M. Shamsur Rahman

Published by the Editor on behalf of Independent Publications Limited at Media Printers, 446/H, Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1215.
Editorial, News & Commercial Offices : Beximco Media Complex, 149-150 Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1208, Bangladesh. GPO Box No. 934, Dhaka-1000.

Editor : M. Shamsur Rahman
Published by the Editor on behalf of Independent Publications Limited at Media Printers, 446/H, Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1215.
Editorial, News & Commercial Offices : Beximco Media Complex, 149-150 Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1208, Bangladesh. GPO Box No. 934, Dhaka-1000.

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