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16 July, 2018 00:00 00 AM
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Occupational therapy for intellectual disability (ID)

Rabeya Ferdous
Occupational therapy for intellectual disability (ID)

Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Intellectual disability affects about 1% to 3% of the population. There are many causes of intellectual disability, but doctors find a specific reason in only 25% of cases.

Risk factors are related to the causes. Causes of intellectual disability can include:

Infections (present at birth or occurring after birth)

Chromosomal abnormalities (such as Down syndrome)

Environmental

Metabolic (such as hyperbilirubinemia, or very high bilirubin levels in babies)

Nutritional (such as malnutrition)

Toxic (intrauterine exposure to alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines, and other drugs)

Trauma (before and after birth)

Unexplained (doctors do not know the reason for the person's intellectual disability)

There are many symptoms of intellectual disability. Among of these most common symptoms are following:

Delayed developmental milestone like roll over, sitting up, crawling, standing and walking.

Take more time to answer any question

Slow in every activity like toileting, dressing feeding etc.

Difficulty remembering things

Behavior problems such as explosive tantrums

Difficulty to solve any problem

In children with severe or profound intellectual disability, there may be other health problems as well. These problems may include seizures, mood disorder, motor skills etc.

There are 4 stages of intellectual disability.

1. Mild: Patient who have mild Problem they can generally learn reading, writting and motor skills. They can live independently by doing their own job.

2. Moderate: They may be able to learn some basic reading and writing. They can learn functional skills such as safety and self-help. Sometimes they need supervision.

3. Severe:

These types of patient have difficulty to read or write, although they may learn self-help skills and routines. They require supervision in the daily activities.

4. Profound:

Patients who have profound intellectual disability, they require intensive support. They may be able to communicate by verbal or other means. They may have medical conditions that require ongoing nursing and therapy.

Role of Occupational Therapist

Occupational Therapists are working for making independent to the child. Occupational Therapist provide following treatment for intellectual disable child:

Social skills training: Social skills are some manners that we use to communicate with others, both verbally and non-verbally through gesture, body language and other personal appearances.

Intellectual disability child have difficulty to communicate with others. That's why they don't understand how they react in different situation. Occupational therapist provide social skills training for these socially delay child.

Memory Training: There are two types of memory which includes long term memory and short term memory. Patient who have intellectual disability they have poor memory. Occupational Therapist practices the patient in different memory related work like puzzle game, color identification and other different work. Occupational therapist helps to make a daily schedule for remembering the daily work.

DL's (Activities of Daily Living) training: Activities which we do from wake up to before sleep these called Activities of Daily Living. It has three parts like Self care, Productivity and Leisure.

Intellectual disable patient can't maintain sequences during doing any activity. Occupational Therapist practices one activity by doing different steps. It includes practical demonstration or seeing the picture of an activity.  Money Management: ID child have difficulty to identify and counting money. Therapist provides money management training. E.g.  Shopping.

Time Management: It is important skills in our everyday life. Occupational therapist teach the patient about time management.

If intellectual disable patient get proper guidance then they can involve in different types of job. Occupational Therapist provides different intervention for intellectual disable patient. So, patient cans independent as much as possible. They can earn money for their family.

 

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Editor : M. Shamsur Rahman

Published by the Editor on behalf of Independent Publications Limited at Media Printers, 446/H, Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1215.
Editorial, News & Commercial Offices : Beximco Media Complex, 149-150 Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1208, Bangladesh. GPO Box No. 934, Dhaka-1000.

Editor : M. Shamsur Rahman
Published by the Editor on behalf of Independent Publications Limited at Media Printers, 446/H, Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1215.
Editorial, News & Commercial Offices : Beximco Media Complex, 149-150 Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka-1208, Bangladesh. GPO Box No. 934, Dhaka-1000.

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